This page has been automatically translate with Google from the Italian language.
CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF THE PURCHASES
1.12 Analysis of the pocketbook acquires.
The political of purchase, tending in a generalized manner to more and more tightened integration
with the market of the supply, imply deep changes in the management of the relationships and the systems of management and
economic control of the supplies.
The purchase political will have therefore to be differentiated based on the historical
moment lived from the company and to the inner contingencies (type of company, level of maturity of the purchases.) and
external (competition, characteristics of the market of the supply.) variable they in the time and strongly employee
from the competitive position of the company.
It is not therefore possible to define behavior rules and to fix valid
political of purchase in a generalized manner but, in the picture of common ispiration principles, is possible to define
of the modalities of analysis of the pocketbook purchases that supply the bases for the construction of a personalized
system of supplying management of the park.
The system is articulated in three main elements:
- Subdivision of the pocketbook in goods classes.
- Analysis importance - reperire.
- Location of the political for class.
1.12.1 Subdivision of the pocketbook in goods classes.
All the products and services acquire would have to be combine to you to you in goods classes,
defined like with of products and services that for their similar in terms of:
They can be considered as with homogenous of purchase demanded to potentially interchanging suppliers and every class it follows
common trend evolutionary and it allows to define common logical of management.
- Realized technologies
- Raw materials common ones
- Constructive cycles
The class depends from as the company decides
to acquire the product and from as the market of the supply introduces the customer.
1.12.2 Analysis importance - reperire.
In order to characterize the index of critic of a goods class in simple way it is necessary
to analyze it two determining ones according to: the relative importance on the turnover of purchase and its reperire on
Beyond determining if a class has high or low reperire it is extremely
interesting to estimate the causes of the eventual lowland reperire, for being able to address eventually sets in
- The importance is substantially one determining economic and how much must be estimated the volume of a goods class
affects the turnover of purchase. In first approximation can be considered to high importance the classes that invoice a greater
quota medium - equal of the 2-5% of the total purchases. In cases of purchases many dispersing on numerous goods classes
can be considered "high" also a class that arrives to 1%. After all the appraisal low-high importance is relative and
therefore valued case for case.
- With the term "reperibilitÓ" is wanted to be indicated the facility with which a product
it can be found on the market. Reperire of a class therefore is always determined from the numerosity of the famous
suppliers and qualifies to you to supply.
The main causes can be: market ties, that is oligopolies and monopolies, ties deriving from precise
business choices, political ties etc.
A synthetic and practical way in order to represent the pocketbook graphically
acquires of a company, therefore like emerged from the analysis importance - reperire, is obtained inserting the
goods classes in a matrix to two ways in which the columns they represent the reperire (high - low) and the lines
the importance (high - low).
Such table, brought back in Fig. 1,5 comes commonly called "matrix of Kraljic" from the name
of who it for first has used like marketing instrument.
it is necessary but to specify that the reperire and the
importance can be modified in the time in function of the changes of scene of market and/or inner changes to the company.
Figure. 1.5. Matrix of Kraljic
On the base of these variable ones four article classes
can be characterized:
- To - Strategic articles: rare materials and of great value, are the materials more critic why the more important to us for
the company and situate to you in highly risk markets.
- B - Articles lever: draft of important material for the company, but places to you in little risk markets.
- C - Articles not critic to us: it downstairs characterizes impact to you on the company and places to you in stable markets
- D - Articles subject to throttlings: articles with a business impact much bottom, but with supplies to risk.