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CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF THE PURCHASES
1.5 New horizons for the enterprises today.
In the past years, the Italian and French automotive houses had asked their suppliers (between which
primary multinational companies) one cost reduction of 15% in the arc of 3 years.
A reduction of the own costs is not thinkable but without to innovate in all the fields and in particular in the purchases, that
they weigh for beyond 50% of the total of the turnover.
Today therefore the companies manufacturers of all the world are see again the modalities with which they buy members and services.
And, perhaps for before the time from the oil crisis of the years the seventy and successive deficiencies of materials,
this focus has become one priority for the apex.
In the attempt to reduce lead Time, to answer more fastly to their customers
and their requirements, to improve the quality and at the same time to increase the efficiency, the companies leader have begun
to manage their channels of supply with absolutely new modalities.
Often rethinking also to it puts into effect them borders
of the "own companies", have introduced two important elements in the management of supplyings of the organizations:
This new vision is centered more on the search, selection and management of the suppliers who on the purchase process.
The main objective is to identify supplying stable, diminishing the times of supplying and the prices, and maximizing the
performances, through an adapted system of selection management and negotiation.
- The production, more and more often, to supplyes zero, that it involves the reduction of the possible supplyes lessened,
that in its turn presupposes the discouragement of the times of delivery and management, with more frequent deliveries and a
good level of quality of acquired ("the zero defects"), in order to increase therefore the production flexibility (loto unitary)
and to reduce immobilizations financial institutions and the operating costs of the supplyes.
- Terziarizzazione of the determined services or of is made, in order to slim the organization, to render it flexible, to
reduce the fixed costs in favor of those variable ones.
This involves one more complex integration between the market of
the question and that one of the offer, and consequently, the modification of the role and the modalities of operation of
All that becomes necessary as a result of
the ascertainment that the added value has gone progressively diminishing in the course of last the four decades while, in the
same period a strong need of specialization has been manifested in our factories.
In passed the manager, they had been
entrusted, for the happened one of the enterprise, to the vertical integration.
Today, the complexity of the products and the competitiveness of the markets have carried the companies to shrink their sphere
of activity in order to focus itself on a limited set of Core competences .
In order to make that they have entrusted partner that possessed particular competences or that they had market access.
In 1990, the average cost of materials, members and services acquires from all the companies to you American manufacturers was
more of 75% of the value of their products.
In 1960 it was 40%, in 1945 was 35%.
This increase of the cost of the products acquires you to the outside is served sure to push the attention of the management
to the supplying activities.
That it pushes the enterprises to work in this direction, is therefore the birth of new
The companies that mainly watch in this direction are the enterprises that for the management of the information
to the inside of their company use systems ERP.
In the following pages they come exactly deals such systems to you in the detail, putting in evidence the positive characteristics
and above all their infuence on the field of the purchases, than is more interests to us.