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CHAPTER 1: THE EVOLUTION OF THE PURCHASES
1.4 It is made of the business strategy of purchase.
1° phase: analysis of the supply atmosphere.
Every field is the result of the equilibrium between various competitive forces that act on prices, costs and investments
whose change determines in the time the profit of the field. The competition in a field stretches to carry the rate
of return of the understood one invested them towards a rate limit, defined from the conditions of perfect competition.
The enterprises in order to turn out competitive and not to risk to exit from the market, will have to try to have rendering
not inferior to this threshold limit, also who invests in a field not inferior chip ax rendering, from the moment that
has the possibility to invest in other fields.
The Porter economist characterizes five competitive factors that demonstrate
as the competition of a field goes beyond the behavior of single the concurrent ones.
Rivality between the enterprises, the
contenders, the customers, the suppliers, the possible substitutive products and the income of new upgrades them contenders
determines in fact the intensity of the competition.
The attraction of the closely tied field is therefore to the profit that is the fruit of the evolution in the time
of the force ratios of the propose factors under in detail.
2° phase: opportunity and risk analysis.
- Entered new threat.
The companies that enter in a field have like objective to conquer market shares to losses of the
by now mature enterprises of the field.
Usually they carry ahead one political of penetration, based on selling prices many
bottoms that cover the production costs offering a profit margin much bottom.
This obligates the present companies in the field therefore to having to lower also they the selling prices or to offer to
the good to the usual price guaranteeing but one quality or a better service.
- Intensity of the competition.
The companies put in action all continuously the strategies possible in order to exceed the competition and to maintain the
own market share intact.
The enterprises are defied in fact in battles of price, promotional campaigns, launch of new products that obviously obligate all the enterprises of the field to act consequently, in order not to run the risk to exit,
turn of some year, from the market.
- Competition of the substitutive products.
The enterprises do not compete alone with the companies of the same field, but also with those manufacturers of products alternated to you, but those assets that also having the same characteristics cannot however satisfy the same need, and therefore if offered to a convenient price could also attract the attention of the customer.
- To be able contractual of the customers.
The customers are an indirect force that feeds the competition between enterprises.
The companies in fact also not to lose market shares try to please the requirements of the customers who usually regard reductions of price, good quality of the product and the offered service.
This to always satisfy the customer increases the competition between the enterprises that are obliged to being always competitive also seeing to diminish their percentage of profit.
- To be able contractual of the suppliers.
The suppliers with their selling prices very condition the course of their companies customers and the entire field.
They can put into effect in fact of the increases or the reductions of prices that will be reflected on the final price of the good, putting therefore also in serious danger the competitiveness of the final company.
One of the methodologies currently more diffuse for the appraisal of fields and phenomena is analysis SWOT 9 .
The field or the conditions appraisal object, in fact, must be deepening studies you to the aim to bring to light all their characteristics, structural and conjunctural, and to evidence eventual relations and synergies with other proposals and situations.
In order to make that he is not sufficient to know in the detail the specific topic but the full acquaintance of the context to the inside becomes necessary of which this is placed.
Once collections all the information that are thought are necessary for the definition of a picture, possible the most complete how much, of the specific topic and the context to the inside of which this is placed, it is possible to proceed to the appraisal.
Through analysis SWOT it is possible to evidence the points of force and weakness to the aim to make to emerge those that they come thought able to favor, or to hinder or to delay, the pursue of determines to you objects to you.
More specifically in analysis SWOT endogenous and exogenous factors are distinguished.
The customary terminology distinguishes the endogenous factors between force points and points of weakness and those exogenous between opportunity and risks. Between first all are considered those variable ones that make part integrating of the same system, on which are possible to take part in order to pursue object to you prefixed.
Between the second ones, instead, variable external to the system that but can condition it are positively that are found negatively.
In this last case it is not possible to take part directly on the phenomenon but it is opportune to predispose control structures that characterize the exogenous agents and of it they analyze the evolution to the aim to prevent the events denied to you and to take advantage of those positi to you.
The possible factors to consider are following:
3° phase: definition of the purchase strategy.
- Dimension and trend of increase of the volumes of purchase of the own company and the contenders.
- Competitive structure (in terms of quotas and concentrations) of the market of supply and the market of outlet in which the
company it competes.
- Structures of cost,
profit of the products.
- Presence of barriers to the entrance of the field.
In order to operate effectively in a necessary atmosphere of supply is that the strategy of the purchases strongly is integrated with the business strategy.
Three are the factors that concur to render this grip necessary integration:
They have been identified three possible strategies that they vary to varying of the contractual weight that possesses the company in the negotiations trades them.
- The elevated competition in which the companies they operate
- The atmosphere of supply of the companies, than is always become more dynamic.
- The change of the nature and the scopes of the function acquires.
4° phase: Definition of the procurement.mix.
The decisional levers of purchase (procurement mix) derive from the levers of marketing called with 4P (price, product, promotion, destination).
- Elevated to be able contractual of the company.
In this situation the company is found in a force position that allows them to concentrate the supply also towards little suppliers, also its purchasing power is much fort.
They will be in fact the suppliers to having itself to adapt to the requirements of the enterprise customer in order not to risk to lose it.
Being the subject more strongly the company has the possibility to ask reductions in price, to obligate the supplier as an example to equip itself of adequate logistic structures and fargli undertaking programs of improvement of the product.
In this situation therefore the company it will orient towards politics of the buy, but not to produce the material in the own plants to acquire it from thirds party, trying to maintain possible the supplyes more low, thus diminishing the logistic costs and obligating the supplier to frequent deliveries.
- Equilibrium in the contractual power.
In this situation instead you is true and just an equilibrium, that it puts the two against parts on same the slowly contractual one.
In this case, the company tries to shrink the circle of the suppliers between those more trusts to you and the volume of the supplyes is advanced but has the function of "bearing".
For how much it concerns the choice between buy and make comes estimated of time in time to second of the situation.
- Elevated to be able contractual of the supplier.
In this situation instead the company it is found in a substantial position of disadvantage, that it involves a low contractual power that obligates the enterprise to adopt politics of the make, that is it is passed from the purchase of the finished product to the purchase of the raw materials, organizing one inner production with programs directed to the control of the quality and its improvement.
An other objective is the continuous search of supplying products alternated to you so as to to differentiate the park, diminishing their contractual power.
The purchase marketing therefore you transfer the own concepts of the
marketing to the purchases, suggesting to define the mix more opportune between:
Here of continuation the four will be dealt in the detail levers, as soon as cited:
- Product to acquire (relative decisions to the materials and the technologies).
- Price to accept (to define the aspects
trades them of the supplies).
- Sources of purchase (appraisal of the number of suppliers, the markets).
- Relations to undertake with the supplier (contractual tipology, procedures of coordination, control.).
- The product.
The produced lever can be defined in terms of material or technology used for production.
A same product can introduce itself on the market constituted from various tipology of material, which various performances,
various level qualitative, different facility of working correspond and it can therefore to turn out more or less profitable.
The product is therefore one directly impatta lever of purchase that on the quality of the ended one, the machinability and the
production costs. In the same way the technology, than is employed in order to realize the product, has a its impact on the
compatibility and quality of the production process beyond on the technological level of the finished product.
This last one has a particular strategic importance above all if one is pursued differenzzazione strategy turns to the innovation
and improvement of the product.
- The price.
The lever price has an impact directed on the cost of the product and exists
various approaches for its determination based on the various tipology of purchase. Generic products
10 generally are quoted from the market, while instead produced specific they demand one
quotation from part of the supplier who can vary in acquired relation to the quantity and the difficulty
of finding on the market.
Various instead the determination of the price if is in presence of an only supplier or more
supplying: in the first case it will resort to the negotiation, but to the negotiation vis-a-vis of the terms of supply, in
according to case they will be taken in offered considerations more of price, with the choice of the more convenient.
- Sources of purchase.
The purchase sources are the lever correspondent to the distributive channel of the traditional marketing: that is in this phase
it must determine the more suitable channel to use for being able to provision the product.
The first step to complete is that one to estimate the number of suppliers and to decide therefore if to use an only supplier,
or to reduce the park simply supplying or instead opposite choice to increase the number of suppliers of assets alternated to you.
Subsequently it will come analyzed the supply risk and after appraisal of the performances carried out from the suppliers based on
of the parameters will be one.
- Relations to undertake with the supplier.
On the base of the selection of the purchase sources the last lever of the purchase sources will be determined then:
the choice that is of the relations to establish with the supplier.
The relationship modalities can be grouped in three classes: traditional that is based on classics relationships of market,
integrated where particular agreement that is stipulated it takes in consideration the synchronization of the supply flows
and evoluto that it previews a true one and just relationship of partnership.
On the base of these three tipology can be defined various contractual tipology, example contracted open or traditional
contracts, to agree coordination procedures in order to define variations of price and the amount and to define eventual
modalities of rendered restitutions of contest to you.
- Notes 9: procedure of logical type, mutuato from the business economy, that it concurs to render the information
systematic and fruibili collections approximately
a specific topic and supplies fundamental information for the political definition and lines of participation.
- Notes 10: Knows also Commodities.