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CHAPTER 2: ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT
2.5 Towards one net of synergies: the extensive ERP and the Corporate Portals
2.5.1 Definition and advantages of the systems of Enterprise Resource Planning
For systems of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) one agrees with of applications software, functional complete, whose they give
to you are integrated in a database dawned in real time22.
The ERP distinguish therefore from the managerial normal schools software, whose range is decidedly little wide one and limited
to little specific activities (like as an example the accounting, the management of the orders, etc...).
Moreover the managerial one is not based on a database relational, founded on they give to you univoci for the processes
governs you from the software, and to the contrary of systems ERP it does not possess a visiona integrated of all the business
The business activities them business-to-business and business-to-consumer they do not mark the overcoming
of the business ERP, but they must some be supported.
On the push of the Web to speak about classics applied to you ERP has seemed for a sure time, a lot that more
times has been spoken about the dead women of the Enterprise Resource Planning.
But more and more us account is becoming that all this is not at all true and that without having an accurate management of the
inner processes it is impossible to think to open itself towards outside 23 .
Therefore the ERP in short represents an infrastructure from the solid foundations, than through an effective elaboration
of the business data it renders the communication in net with own the partner and the own customers easyr and fruitful.
As we have said previously, the SCM instruments facilitate the planning of the production activities and distribution of the
products/services and their effectiveness closely is tied to the possibility to activate solutions of managements
of the supply chain that:
As far as the ERP one is you assist yourself therefore, in years ' 90, to a modification of their role that has allowed one managerial reorganization business revolt to the optimization of the inner processes and at the same time to progressive integration with the partner of the row.
- They increase the row is to mount that to goes them, transforming several the customers and active suppliers in partner.
- They concur an effective one and timely analysis of gives and of the acquaintances available to the inside of the supply chain.
Therefore in markets and complex atmospheres more and more competiti to you and, to have use of systems of Enterprise Resource Planning it increases to you or extended, it more and more constitutes a point of arrival for the efficient enterprise that it wants at the same time to contribute and to have use of one creation of value deriving from the mutual collaboration to the inside of the Supply Chain (figure 13).
With reference to figure 13, the development of integrated management systems of the supply, as they can be systems ERP, it passes through of
is made following:
- Saving of costs with the Information Technology: the use of models ERP base allows the simplification of the business
operations, limiting the cartacea documentation and automating the management activity, with a discouragement of remarkable the managed costs to you and of management. Moreover with I use it of ulterior instruments bases to you on the web, the enterprise can have use of all the advantages deriving from the Internet exchange (discouragement of the costs, etc...).
- Efficiency of process: I use of systems automates you of planning of the clean resources allows of the gain in efficiency for the enterprise. This greater efficiency will be therefore decisive in order to free from new the administrative activity and of management resources to assign to Core business or to the implementation of new technologies.
- Effectiveness of process: the increase of the systems of Enterprise Resource Planning towards the actors you mail to mount and to greater effectiveness of the production process through the key of time of the sharing goes them of the supply chain concurs to catch up one of gives to you, information and acquaintances. The greater effectiveness associated to the inner collaboration in the row allows a greater competitiveness that is not only of the single company, but that it belongs to the entire integrated system.
Figure 13: the evolution of systems ERP An error that is often committed, above all in the small and
averages enterprises, is that one to consider expensive and sophisticated systems ERP too much for the own activity, and
therefore not to take them in consideration.
They are therefore very little the PMI that assert to have installed one of these systems, the others withdraw on one of
many the managerial presents on the market.
Error that becomes dangerous for the effectiveness of the business management in the case in which the entrepreneur
management of the Supply Chain based on the aid of instruments of the ICT puts into effect one.
In fact we have seen previously, as management of the chain of supply based on Internet, and founded on the collaboration
and the sharing of information is important for one, the accuracy of the data.
The approach integrated contained in the ERP concurs to obtain of gives to you more answering to truth, since takes in
consideration the entire production process, and is therefore in a position to supplying information modernized on the
effective use of the materials and on the state of advance of the jobs. In a generalized manner, the producers of ERP
that address to the Italian PMI follow enough similar roads: on the base of the own generic solutions they have developed
packages aimed to you that accountings implement the classic functions of management (, warehouse, orders...) and
a reduced number of accessory functions, specific for industrial field (manufacturing, chemical, retail...) or
in order to qualify one particular activity (typical case: the sale on the Web).
The main advantage of this approach is that it constitutes, second its supporters, one moved preventive:
the company customer is found endured to decide of a solid
implementation of the base functions and would have to then find a road simpler when they will want to widen.
Beside the simple one database today by now we find more and more often a web server and application a serveur.
These instruments in fact, allow the company to open itself towards nets Intranet or Extranet, or directly towards Internet,
giving seen to systems of Enterprise Resource Planning of extensive type that allow to an easy exchange of information between
the several partner (figure 14).
That facilitates the integrated management of the chain of supply and the discouragement
of the logistic risks deriving from one ineffective programming of the production, facilitating remarkablly the job of
the director acquires.
Figure 14: The cycle of information, financial materials and in the Enterprise Resource Planning 24 The Web/application serveur gains from the database gives legacies to the enterprise processes and, lessened, it concurs to use the Web browser like client universal.
In truth the possibilities offered from application a serveur are greater and are tied to the ability to execute Java applications directly on the serveur that manages gives (the so-called ones to you servlet) or in net, in order to even concur interrogations in real time through the Web. How much these possibilities are developed and usable it depends obviously on the single architectures, but the trend consolidated this appears 25 .
- Notes 22: Definition from part of the Federation of Digital Economy
- Notes 23: Francisco Pignatelli, the e-business is after the ERP
- Notes 24: Outline drawn from the situated one www.unitec.it
- Notes 25: Francisco Pignatelli, the e-business is after the ERP