This page has been automatically translate with Google from the Italian language.
CHAPTER 2: ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT
2.4 Classification of the shapes of e-procurement: discreet transaction and relational exchange
The choice from part of the entrepreneur whom it invests in the ICT, between the possible solutions that
Internet offers, is tied to the complexity of the supply market and to the importance of supplying.
Circumstances that, as we have seen, can induce in error the entrepreneur in its choice between discreet transaction and
In fact the web, if on one side it facilitates integration between the customer and the supplier,
from the other can push the enterprises to put in action typical behaviors of the traditional management of the purchases,
that is to choose the vendor in function of the price practiced for the particular one of interest.
That, concurs with the enterprise customer, like if it were found in the presence of an immense display window, of being able
to know and to estimate the offer in its totality, or great part of it, putting in crisis, second some, the stable
relations customer-supplier, that is the partnership model 19.
As we have already seen, the birth of the digital markets has conditioned them in decisive way the supply relationships.
Internet in fact allows to reduce the purchase costs, increasing to excess the competition in supplyings, to shorten the
logistic chains, cutting the several nets of intermediation, to obtain contracts picture more widens possible to the aim to
dull more convenient prices, than to realize shipments to loaded suit in order to reduce the shipping charges.
That has made to think therefore to one more and more emphasized crisis of the stable relationships customers - supplying (partnership). Going but to analyze to the materials object of exchange to the inside of the marketplace, we become account that the greater part of the dealings regards not strategic goods and services.
Draft in kind of merely transazionali relationships, in which the activities carried out in net they are limited to the definition of the economic contents and technical of the order taking in consideration investments it does not dedicate to you and specific or it objects common (transaction E-procurement to you).
When draft to be carried out operations of e-procurement having for object material directed (excluded commodities), that is produced goods and services of primary importance for business Core business, the companies addresses to shapes of dealing apt to establish synergies on the plan of the strategic planning and the definition of the final detailed lists of product giving life to relationships sluices of collaborativo/relazionale type.
To confirmation of how much as soon as said, the importance of the SCM instruments emerges with immediate evidence if it is considered that:
- nearly 70% of the enterprises provision from suppliers accustom them and the percentage is gone around around 90% in the manifacturing field;
- the enterprises nowadays consider the innovation of the processes, the communication and the collaboration with customers and suppliers and the quality of the products and the services which primary sources of competitive advantage.
Figure 11: Passage from the e-procurement transaction to the e-procurement relational (elaborated from G.Scozzese) In truth, various instruments of e-procurement, everyone of which exist correspond to a specific requirement from part of the customer who finds itself to provision the raw materials of which she has need. We can assert, therefore, that there is a single contradiction appearing between the ICT and the relationships of supply that presuppose relational models of exchange.
To confirmation of that, it is possible to operate a distinction between the various instruments of e-procurement to second that the nature of the supply relationship is one discreet transaction, or exactly, a relational exchange.
Before but we go to shortly define the 3 various macro-solutions of supply electronic:This formula indicates with of exchanges one-to-one when the supply relationship does not demand a specific investment or not is a common objective between customer and supplier. This transaction therefore is moved alone opportunistic behaviors.Marketplaces to are aggregation points that bring buyers and sellers together to created markets for exchanging goods and services 20 .
The electronic or virtual marketplace they can therefore be defined like of the virtual places where the encounter between question of supplying from part of the buyer and distribution offered from the vendor happens.
In these virtual markets the interest of some category does not predominate and there is an open criterion in order to enter, for every group.
In the within of this shape of e-procurement, it is possible to distinguish:
- E-marketplace catalogue, laddove the exchange is of the type one to many between an intermediary and a multitude of purchasers whom they choose that what to acquire in the within of a predisposed catalogue.
- E-marketplace exchange, when the exchange is of the sort many to many between many fornitrici enterprises and purchasers who operate to total level through a continuous negotiation.
- E-marketplace auction if, with reference to supplyings, the exchange is of the species one to many between a buying enterprise that defines the requirementses and receives offered from one multitude of suppliers in contest between they for the award.
These instruments represent of the solutions for
an integrated management of the supply chain and allow effective integration between several the present actors.
- 3. Instruments and junior clerks you of Supply Chain Management
The SCM instruments answer in practical to the felt requirement of sharings of give to you, information and know-how, and allow
an approach integrated to the process for supplying, the production and the delivery of products and services to the customer.
A stiff process to the optimization of the delivery derives some to the customer who, thanks to the communication between
the various operating subjects along the chain concurs one lessening of the costs of inventory and those totals of production
making at the same time lever on the velocizzazione of the flow of goodses with the inside of the production process and
connected interaziendale informative flow 21 .
Elaborated mine it will be stopped, in this understood it, on some of these models, for which after a first one I point out descriptive of some of they, I will pass to the deepened description of solutions directly as the extensive systems ERP and the Corporate Portals, which more represent the shape evoluta in this kind of applications.
There is from saying however, that they re-enter in this category a great number of instruments and junior clerks you of ICT implement from the enterprise customer to you in order to support stable relations of supply, which:In the case of the EDI (Electronic Delivery of Invoice) the exchange is of type one to one between customers and suppliers already connected hour implement to you on Extranet net.
These solutions are sure classifiable between the first applications of SCM in circulation, and however most times, they represent the first step towards the integrated management of the supply relationships, even if however they answer to the simple requirement of simplification of the administrative and bureaucratic cargo of the corporate structure.
Those re-enter in this category all in which, object of exchange to the inside of the row, is the know how industrial possessed from the connected enterprises electronically which they subtend, technological sovente, agreements.
- Consortium Based Vertical Marketplace
They are therefore the Joint venture result of between enterprises of the same industrial field, the whose objective is that one to improve the own performances and those of the industrial field in the complex.
These instruments of SCM have been devised to the aim to obtain the advantage to take advantage
of the sophistication of business and the exceptional value of the know how industrial of the single participants through one tightened and continue collaboration.
The access to the collective wisdom of the participants more has an elevated value much regarding the price efficiencies, to the savings in the purchase processes, to the neutrality of independent the vertical markets.
Through the collaboration, the CBVM favor the creation of industrial standards facilitating the discovery of new possibilities of gain.They consist in electronic transactions of type many to many where some companies form, in via exclusive right, of the chains, that they allow, beyond to the exchange of products and/or services it puts into effect them, also the planning of new.
The private ones exchange represent therefore one effective formula of private exchange of acquaintances between subjects of the supply chain, for the creation of competitive products you thanks to the added content of the collaboration and know how the more enterprises.
Moreover, one of the reasons for which these solutions they come to exist, is represented from the protection of the competitive advantage created tearing more favorable conditions the suppliers.
Ulterior benefits are at the same time represent you from the greater speed of decision obtained with the compartecipazione of the stakeholder and, from minor the risk of passage of useful information to the competition.
Requirement for trying exchange effective are following:
- Organizational systems of the compatible participants between they
- Technical compatibility of the systems informed to you
- Knowledge of the subjects on cospicui the benefits that can be obtained
- Interdependence of the participants during the life of the prodotto/servizio, from the development to the commercialization.
Figure 12: Classification of the shapes of e-procurement based on the nature of the supply relationship
- Notes 19: G. Scot the impact of the Information & Communication Technology on the relationships the supply
- Notes 20: Morgan Stanley, Dean Witter, 2000
- Notes 21: G. Scot the impact of the Information & Communication Technology on the relationships the supply