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2 The traditional procurement

2.3 The activities of the procurement process

To understand the enterprise-internal procurement structure the individual procurement activities are described here, whereby also the most frequent process disturbances and possibly arising problems are mentioned.
With respect to the procurement process the customer GmbH one can differentiate six activities: material requirement, selection of suppliers, order and/or order, incoming goods, audit and conclude payment operations.

Fig. 2: The main activities of the traditional procurement process.

In detail the activities mentioned consist of different activities:
  • material requirement: The first step of the procurement process is the statement and message of materials requirements of a certain customer department and/or person. Usually becomes a materials requirements plan in connection with production and/or. Maintenance plan in advance provides, so that the customer department is to only examine the due in each case need.
    Naturally there can be unplanned material need also due to unexpected damage, losses, etc.. Independently of it, whether materials requirements are planned or unexpected, the Requester must fill out and from the department and/or range leader signed have an appropriate form - the material requirement light -.
    With the fact it is important that all necessary data are indicated, so that the inquired property can be identified and be ordered with the correct supplier. Thus a material requirement light must contain as exact a data as possible over the necessary property - like manufacturers, article number, quantity, other special characteristics (e.g. the size of a seal or the achievement of an engine) and if necessary the design -. Also the inquiring department and/or person (if necessary with telephone number) is to be indicated, so that it can reach the purchase department for possible further inquiries. The material requirement light must be approved by the range leader, sent to the purchase department and put down thereafter. In individual cases the production department must remind the purchase department, in order to get the commodity in time, in particular if it is urgently used.
  • Selection of suppliers: The purchase department of the enterprise receives the material requirement light and looks for the suitable supplier for the procurement of the necessary commodity.
    "(...) the search effected on the basis in which all who are applicable suppliers for each materials type are contained of business DATA cousin, since the enterprise has usually a Suppliers portfolio resulting from the past orders. For well-known and/or the past the selection is usually limited ordered products to this Portfolio, whereby for "unimportant" products in normal catalogs (yellow sides, etc..) to be searched can.
    For important products this phase takes over a strategic meaning. The selected supplier must have the suitable technology, in order to offer the inquired product with good quality, in the necessary quantity and at low price. Further relevant conditions are the reliability, the after Sales service and the location.
    After the examination of these criteria takes place the decision for one or more suppliers. An individual supplier can being selected due to special characteristics such as patents, technical conditions, available raw materials, location, etc. and because of a strategic project, e.g. in the case of a planned long-term relationship. Different suppliers are applicable however, if none of the characteristics mentioned are present, whereby the competition can ensure lower prices and better services. Possibly a negotiation takes place concerning the prices, delivery times and terms of payment for specific orders.
    As the final conditions result, depends on negotiation power and the behavior of both parties. For standard products, with which the selection of suppliers is high, the prices are fixed in the supplier catalogs and can be negotiated only in the case of large purchase volumes. 7 "the final decision of the buyer one meets on basis by an offer comparison. It sends an inquiry to the suppliers, in order to get and concerning price and delivery time to compare among themselves be able offers. As soon as the offers of the suppliers arrive, the buyer selects the best offer and accordingly the optimal supplier. Strategic decisions are not made in the further process cycle.
    In the analysis of the actual procurement process the selection of suppliers precipitates, since the optimal in each case supplier from preceding orders already identified and in business DATA cousin is stored. How already describes, the procurement process in the actual sense represents an operational procedure, which does not need a strategic decision.
    In the place of the selection of suppliers the search for the suitable supplier remains in the enterprise software, which is implied however in the phase "order and/or order". Therefore there is actually five procurement activities.
  • Order and/or order: With this activity the actual procurement process begins, since only operational activities are necessary for its further completion. Nevertheless the purchase department is occupied usually also to provide the order and/or the order to examine and send to the supplier. "the difference between order and order lies in the fact that the order refers to products of the supplier catalog, while the order concerns a commodity specific to the customer need. 8 "order and order is the contractual expression of the material requirement of a customer department and is therefore all necessary data for the identification of the article, as well as the terms of payment and supply contain. Of it a copy is sent to the bookkeeping and to the camp.
    Usually the purchase department requires a confirmation of order of the supplier, in which the contractual agreement - with price (if necessary also discount), quantity and delivery time - is confirmed.
    In addition the supply is to be pursued, so that the commodity arrives to the desired time and place. In addition the determination of possible delays and the reminder of the suppliers belong by fax or telephone.
  • Incoming goods: As soon as the commodity is supplied, the goods received in the camp of the enterprise take place. With the inspection of incoming goods on the basis the delivery note and the order it is examined whether the correct commodity was supplied in the correct quantity. Further the examination of the quality and the possible lack and/or damage is to take place.
    If any problems arise, it requires still additional tunings with the supplier and/or with the Requester. Afterwards the delivery note is signed and put down.
  • Audit: In this phase the purchase invoice in the bookkeeping takes place. The calculation is to agree both with the order, and with the delivery note concerning the type of goods and the quantity. The price and possible discounts should be alike in the order and in the calculation.
    If the data do not agree, the bookkeeping must eliminate these discrepancies and take up contact both with the supplier and with the purchase department for problem solution.
    The calculation is to be approved, booked thereafter and passed on to the administration.
  • conclude payment operations: Before a calculation is paid, it is examined by the administration.
    Further the administration is an authorization to pay to provide, approve let and to the bank send. For problems it worries also about the clarifying with the bank. The paid calculations are then registered and put down.
    The procurement process is thus final.
In summary table 1 illustrates the activities of the traditional procurement process.

Tab. 1: The procurement activities during the traditional process.

7 Marino V.: Interview, P. xvii.
8 Marino V.: Interview, P. xviii.


This page has been automatically translate with Google from the German language.

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